About molecular programming

Our research focus is on the development of a new generation of technologies for the life sciences by applying concepts from classical computing, logic, and engineering to the realm of biomacromolecules, chemical reactions, and cells. Our approach takes seriously the idea that biology is a computational process, a chain of cause and effect that can be better understood through reverse-engineering, reconstitution at the molecular level, and careful application of the laws of information developed in classical computing.


DNA sequence-based microscopy

Our immediate focus is on exploring and growing the newly emerging field of "DNA sequencing-based microscopy", "DNA microscopy", or "imaging-by-sequencing". The goal of this field is to generate entire images without the use of traditional optics. Instead, microscopic information is recorded in molecules of DNA, stored and processed in that form, and ultimately decoded using high throughput sequencing technology and mathematics to reconstruct images. This exciting field has the potential to completely change how biological and medical information is obtained, surpassing many of the physical limitations of classical microscopy, while at the same time presenting new challenges.

For questions about our research, feel free to contact Ian (✉︎ ithofatmarkkth.se ☏ +46 072 502 4619).



Molecular programming is a nexus of displines spanning the physical sciences and engineering. The tools we use come from DNA nanotechnology, discrete mathematics/combinatorics/graph theory, computational logic and information theory, microscopy, transcriptomics/genomics, polymer physical chemistry, and synthetic biology communities. Our guiding philosophy is to develop the theory and methodology side-by-side and to continuously promote feedback between engineering and scientific discovery.


Our group is located in Stockholm in the Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab), an ambitious institution established as a cooperation between KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, and Uppsala University with the goal of advancing life sciences and fostering collaboration between academics, healthcare, and industry. The institute gathers a community of researchers spanning many disciplines and is a hub for international collaborations.

Learn more: SciLifeLab


KTH Royal Institute of Technology

We are a member of the acclaimed Gene Technology Department in the School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health at KTH Royal Institute of Technology. Its origins established in 1697, KTH is Sweden's top technical research and education institution, a major European node for innovation, and one of the world's highest ranked universities.

Learn more: Gene Technology Department
Learn more: KTH Royal Institute of Technology